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Doświadczyć prawdziwej rzeczywistości. Prolegomena do filozofii mistyki. T. 1: Filozofia doświadczenia mistycznego


  • Krzysztof Stachewicz


The existence of mystic phenomena appears as a universal phenomenon. It occurs not only in all major religions, but also beyond them, in the world of secularism and the disappearance of institutional religious beliefs. Agnostic and atheist spirituality, about which many people write and speak today, are most often pervaded by the spirit of mysticism. This indicates, as it seems, for the presence in human nature of some mystical desire, which allows him to be called not only a metaphysical being (Kant), but also a mystical being. For the most important element of mysticism can reasonably be considered mystical experience, understood as a pure source experience, touching the innermost layer of reality. The mystical experience is a direct touch of the true reality that the philosophers from Plato onwards talked about and sought, as well as writers, poets, artists and musicians. The mystical experience is an insight into the Whole and the experience of oneness with it, merging into the universe of beings as an organic part into a whole. It is this sense of oneness with true reality that seems to be the essence of mystical experience. In religious terms, it is interpreted as a meeting with God, a divine reality, an anticipation of the eschatological times, while outside the religious context one speaks of oneness with the cosmos, the foundation, some arche of the world. Experiences of this type have enormous transformational potential, often creatively infl uencing human life and the transformation of its axiological or moral attitudes. Mystical experience requires understanding and explanation, creative rethinking of its nature as well as life and noetic implications. For centuries, theology has been attempting to accomplish this task by fitting mystical phenomena into a specific religious tradition with dogmatic truths or doctrinal schemas inscribed in it. Mysticism in this perspective becomes an empirical confirmation of the truths and beliefs proclaimed by religions. Do such measures reveal the nature and essence of mystical experience or, on the contrary, make it heterogeneous and obscure its original character? Mysticism is also examined by religious studies, which in the phenomenological-comparative way, often with the use of structuralist and poststructuralist methods and techniques, try to track down the nature of mystical experience, describe and explain it. Research of the historians of ideas psychologists, and recently intensified experimental research of cognitive scientists and neuroscientists also serve realizing the indicated goal. Is there still room for philosophy in these broad research climates? Can philosophical analyzes and deliberations on a mystical phenomenon bring something creative and original and have some cognitive significance? These questions raise the problem of justifying the philosophy of mysticism. Philosophy and mysticism seem to belong to two alien worlds. Rationalism and its requirements with intersubjectivity and objectivity at the forefront on the philosophy side, as well as subjectivism, subjective certainty without the possibility of expressing it on the side of mysticism, seem to create strong tensions and a natural kind of alienation. For many, a radical contradiction. This is particularly true of certain trends in philosophy and certain trends in religious mysticism. However, the beginnings of European philosophy point to its strong involvement in ideas originating from mysticism, and their presence throughout history in philosophy makes us seek for what connects them rather than definitely divides them. Are the rules of positivistically understood rationalism (referring to ratio and not Greek logos) only a just demarcation between what is rational and what is irrational? Hence the attempt to work out the foundations of philosophical thinking about mysticism, which was taken up in this book. This monograph proposes the distinction of four types of connections between philosophy and mysticism, and thus four different approaches to this problem. (1) Philosophy of mysticism (philosophy and mysticism), understood sensu stricto, traces the philosophical aspects of mysticism, philosophically valid implications of mystical experiences, examines mysticism from the point of view of its own domain and problem interests, such as metaphysics, theory of cognition, philosophy of God, axiology or anthropology. (2) Mystical philosophy (mysticism in philosophy) - embodies, to a greater or lesser extent, directly or indirectly, mystical ideas for its thinking, uses them to construct its theories and create theorems. The system of Plotinus seems to be the best example of this. (3) Philosophic mysticism (philosophy in mysticism). The mystic, expressing his experiences in the oral or written form, uses specific conceptual instruments, involved in more or less theoretically advanced concepts, discourses and narratives. Most often they come from doctrines and philosophical systems, though often in a hidden and indirect form, because they are present in the language of a specific religious tradition. Many mystics purposely try to imitate the philosophical discourse (perhaps the best example was Master Eckhart). (4) Philosophical mystology (philosophical studies of mysticism as such) - examines nature, the essence of mysticism from the point of view of philosophical analysis, traces mystical threads in philosophy and philosophical ideas present in the texts of mystics, but in the context of mutual influence between them. This discipline asks about mysticism from the point of view of its subject, wants to capture the logos of mystic phenomena and build their typology - it is a philosophy that examines mysticism indirectly, on the basis of testimonies, although in many cases it uses its own experiences of researchers.

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Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM)
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(pl) Polish
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Ministerial score = 120.0, 27-12-2021, MonograhOrBookNotMainLanguagesAuthor


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