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Relations between Russia, Belarus and Ukraine after 1991

Przemysław Foligowski

Abstract

Looking over quarter of a century of Belarusian and Ukrainian independence, I conclude that Russia remained the main and the most significiant political, cultural and economic element of the sovereign Belarus and Ukraine’s politics. The presentation of Russian influence in both countries could be easily noticed in such important areas, as choice of model of Belarusian and Ukrainian states, protecting the national interests, shaping the official concepts of national security and foreign policy. Bilateral relations between Russia and Belarus and Ukraine had also a great influence on the international politics, especially the relations between the European Union, the United States and the Russian Federation. The mutual contacts were full of political complications evoked by Russian interferences in Belarus and Ukraine. In foreign, as well as home, domestic politics of Belarus and Ukraine, Russia was described as all-important and strategic partner, which traditional influence showed difficult to be omitted. Historical references, common roots and experiences of many centuries of Russian-Belarusian and Russian-Ukrainian common history, complicated the ethnic and linguistic relations in today’s Belarus and Ukraine, traditional Slavic solidarity and postsoviet resentments and sympathies were the reason why the specific kind of connections was impossible to be limited for many years. The analysis of Russian-Belarusian and Russian-Ukrainian relations proves the truth of the research hypotheses adopted at the outset. Relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine were asymmetrical. The described dependencies were conditioned by decisions of the authorities of individual sovereign states, defining at the national level the basic directions of foreign policy, defense (security) and economic development. The primacy of Russia, its position in bilateral relations, its dominant position in relation to Belarusian and Ukrainian dependent (to varying degrees) have changed over the period discussed (years 1991-2018), with the last period negating relations with Russia as the only one (Belarus) or the dominant (Ukraine) foreign policy vector. The described relationships had various sources mentioned above (historical conditions, political, military, socio-economic and cultural factors). A detailed description of bilateral relations over the quarter-century that has elapsed since the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has allowed the presentation of manifestations and sources of asymmetry in contemporary Russian-Belarusian and Russian-Ukrainian relations. Both countries have shaped their relations differently in the Russian Federation. Vladimir Putin's policy of “economization” of foreign policy has contributed to changing the perception of Russia's role and the deterioration of its image. Within a quarter of a century, since the collapse of the USSR, the statehood of Belarus and Ukraine strengthened.
Record ID
UAM739f2c9d811e4781a93495be61b08419
Diploma type
Doctor of Philosophy
Author
Przemysław Foligowski Przemysław Foligowski,, Undefined Affiliation
Title in Polish
Stosunki Rosji z Białorusią i Ukrainą po 1991 r
Title in English
Relations between Russia, Belarus and Ukraine after 1991
Language
pl Polish
Certifying Unit
Faculty of Political Science and Journalism (SNs/WNPiD/FoPSaJ)
Discipline
political science / (social studies) / (social studies)
Scientific discipline (2.0)
5.5 political science and public administration
Defense Date
26-10-2018
End date
26-10-2018
Supervisor
URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10593/24069 opening in a new tab
Keywords in English
Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; sovereignty; conflict
Abstract in English
Looking over quarter of a century of Belarusian and Ukrainian independence, I conclude that Russia remained the main and the most significiant political, cultural and economic element of the sovereign Belarus and Ukraine’s politics. The presentation of Russian influence in both countries could be easily noticed in such important areas, as choice of model of Belarusian and Ukrainian states, protecting the national interests, shaping the official concepts of national security and foreign policy. Bilateral relations between Russia and Belarus and Ukraine had also a great influence on the international politics, especially the relations between the European Union, the United States and the Russian Federation. The mutual contacts were full of political complications evoked by Russian interferences in Belarus and Ukraine. In foreign, as well as home, domestic politics of Belarus and Ukraine, Russia was described as all-important and strategic partner, which traditional influence showed difficult to be omitted. Historical references, common roots and experiences of many centuries of Russian-Belarusian and Russian-Ukrainian common history, complicated the ethnic and linguistic relations in today’s Belarus and Ukraine, traditional Slavic solidarity and postsoviet resentments and sympathies were the reason why the specific kind of connections was impossible to be limited for many years. The analysis of Russian-Belarusian and Russian-Ukrainian relations proves the truth of the research hypotheses adopted at the outset. Relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine were asymmetrical. The described dependencies were conditioned by decisions of the authorities of individual sovereign states, defining at the national level the basic directions of foreign policy, defense (security) and economic development. The primacy of Russia, its position in bilateral relations, its dominant position in relation to Belarusian and Ukrainian dependent (to varying degrees) have changed over the period discussed (years 1991-2018), with the last period negating relations with Russia as the only one (Belarus) or the dominant (Ukraine) foreign policy vector. The described relationships had various sources mentioned above (historical conditions, political, military, socio-economic and cultural factors). A detailed description of bilateral relations over the quarter-century that has elapsed since the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has allowed the presentation of manifestations and sources of asymmetry in contemporary Russian-Belarusian and Russian-Ukrainian relations. Both countries have shaped their relations differently in the Russian Federation. Vladimir Putin's policy of “economization” of foreign policy has contributed to changing the perception of Russia's role and the deterioration of its image. Within a quarter of a century, since the collapse of the USSR, the statehood of Belarus and Ukraine strengthened.

Uniform Resource Identifier
https://researchportal.amu.edu.pl/info/phd/UAM739f2c9d811e4781a93495be61b08419/

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